Cloesen, Bernard; Vroesen, Adriaan; Stampioen, Nicolaas. Sphaera Automaticam Auspiciis Amp. Adriani Vroesii, Calculis Nicolai Stampioen, Per Thrasium adornata: Quam D. Sebastiani Schepers senatoris Rotterd. &c. vidua & heredes dispersam & collapsam publico usui destinarunt, et ab artifice Bernardo Cloesio in ordinem redactam & auctam Academiæ curatores et consules Lugd. Batav. bonis artibus, & cślesti studio dicarunt anno MDCCXI
Leiden, P. van der Aa., 1711.Plano. 46 x 38,5 cm fine copperengraving of this scientific apparatus measuring. 17.5 x 23 cm. Contemporary mounted on blank paper. IN very good if not fine condition.
Broadside on the Leiden Sphaera or Leiden Sphere with detailed description of this automatic sphere. The original planetarium was made for the Rotterdam burgomaster Adriaan Vroesen for a sum of 70,000 guilders. It was a very expensive piece of apparatus. The Leiden Sphaera represents the solar system according to Copernicus: the earth orbits a stationary sun with the other planets. The planets known at the time are included: Mercury, Venus, Earth with the moon, Mars, Jupiter and the most distant planet known at the time, Saturn. The whole is driven by a clockwork mechanism, which had to be rewound every eight days. The planetarium revolved for over a century in library of the University of Leiden. In about 1830, however, it was regarded as scientifically obsolete, and removed.. The sphere has been made by the Rotterdam Clockmaker Steven Tracy with additions by the Bernard Cloesen (fl. 1688-1712). This broadside describes in detail the construction, usage and capabilities of the Copernican sphere. Extremely rare broadside on this famous automatic planetarium, called the " miracle of Leiden." A rare automaton. H. C. King, Geared to the stars (1978), 213-4: " The Rijksmuseum, Leiden, has an impressive orrery-sphere constructed ca. 1700 [ca. 1670] by Steven Tracy*) (d. 1703), a clockmaker and instrument-maker of Rotterdam. Two vertical brassrings, each 1,5 m in diameter, support a wide (28,6 cm) zodiac-band composed of embossed constellation figures cut from sheet brass and mounted in rectangular frames. These figures, originally gilded or lacquered, are now covered with gold lacquer. Supporting the sphere is a hollow wooden cube 84 cm high. This originally held clockwork, but the access door now reveals only an empty interior. A 13-cm clock-face on the top surface of the pedestal shows the time in hours and minutes, and slot apertures nearby indicate the day of the month, month of the year, and the year. The orrery reproduces the orbital motion of the moon, the courses of all the then-known planets, and the rotation and axis parallelism of the earth, and (for the first time) incorporates a geared model of Jupiter's system. In these respects it is comparable to an English grand orrery, but the mechanism is different. Brackets supporting the planets (or planet assemblies) extend from coaxial collars mounted on the vertical sun-stem. Further, these collars are attached to tubes rotated by wheelwork located in the upper part of the pedestal. The basic design therefore resembles that of the Rřmer/Horrebow ceiling planetarium, but various additions show that the designer was no slavish follower of his predecessors. For one thing, he tried to give the model planets some semblance of Keplerian motion by using offset cams similar to those on the Rittenhouse orreries (Chapter 16). Each planet-arm terminates in a shaped strip of metal free to slide in the vertical slots of a carriage fixed to a mobile collar. As the collar rotates, small wheels mounted on the metal strip are guided along the edge of an offset elliptical cam attached to a fixed collar. For Saturn the cam is inclined and the rollers travel along a rim parallel to its surface. For the other planets, earth excepted, the cams are horizontal but carry inclined rims. In all cases the slope of the rim causes its associated planet to rise and fall relative to the plane of the ecliptic, but by excessive amounts. The inclination of Saturn's orbit, for instance, is about 4 degrees. A similar exaggeration applies to the planetary distances, for each guide-plate is strikingly oval or elliptical in shape. To actuate the small Jovilabe at the end of the Jupiter-arm a radial arbor is carried by the arm itself. One end of this takes the form of a pinion long enough to ensure constant contact with a contrate wheel fixed to the central column. The other end is coupled to the drive-arbor of the Jovilabe by a Cardan joint, in order to allow for the variations in the inclination of the arm itself. The earth-moon system appears relatively simple. A small pinion at the lower end of the earth's inclined axis engages a horizontal and relatively large ring-gear with internal teeth. The pinion is presumably conical or bevelled, but its actual form is not apparent by ordinary inspection. As the radial moon-arm rotates, two rollers at the base of the moon-stem travel along the edge of a slightly inclined but circular cam. Presumably a slow rotation of the cam reproduces the regression of the moon's nodes. A Latin text occupying three of the four panels of the pedestal makes no mention of Tracy but states that 'Bernardi a Cloese' improved the sphere and brought it to so perfect a form that it was admired all over Europe. Cloese or Cloesen, a local clock-maker°), receives similar mention on two broadsheets preserved in the Leiden Museum. Each sheet has a central copperplate engraving of the sphere and shows the words 'Sphaera incomparabilis Bibliothecae Lugd. Bat. Excellens ornamentum' on the pedestal (Figure 13.1). The brief text, in French and Latin, records that the sphere was made by 'Thrasius' and that Nicolaus Stampioen made the calculations and Adrien Vroesen #) supervised the work of construction. The sphere had been set aside for public use by the heirs of Sebastien Schepers, a senator of Rotterdam, 'et augmentée & mise en un meilleur ordre par le trés Ingenieux Bernard Cloesen. Messieurs les Curateurs de l'Université et Messieurs les Bourguemaîtres de la Ville de Leyde l'ont destinée aux Amateurs des beaux Arts & de l'Astronomie, en l'An MDCCXI.' The drawing gives a good overall representation of the sphere, omits the eccentric collars but adds a ring for the celestial equator and a spindle that passes upwards through the sun to terminate in an urn-shaped finial. [ *) Steven Tracy's portrait (destroyed in 1940) with celestial globe, painted by Adriaen van der Werff, is given in Planetarium-boek Eise Eisinga (1928), p. 357. Another image of the portrait (RKD 0000035123) gives evidence that the Leiden sphere was depicted in the background: the two great circles (colures) and the equator (added by Cloesen, 1711) are discernible. A grandson of Tracy, or Thrasi was Steven Hoogendijk, founder of the 'Bataafsch Genootschap', see Verh. Bat. Gen. 9, iii-.]
°) Father of Jacob van der Cloese, clockmaker and scientific instrument-maker of Leiden. See Rooseboom 1950: 45-6. [ Maria Rooseboom, Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis der instrumentmakerskunst in de Noordelijke Nederlanden tot omstreeks 1840, Leiden 1950.] [ Bernard van der Cloesen had worked for Chr. Huygens: O.C. 18, 516.]
[ #) Nicolaas Stampioen (1639-1721), son of Johan Stampioen who had been a teacher of Christiaan Huygens (<), and grandson of Jan Jansz. Stampioen who was a friend of Isack Beeckman (<). Adriaen Vroesen (1641-1706), a Rotterdam burgomaster, was a grandson of Willebrord Snellius.]
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